The history of the Pomeranian breed began many centuries ago. Near Lake Ladoga, archaeologists have found the remains of a peat fossil Spitz, a distant relative of the current Pomeranian breed. On various household items of ancient Rome, ancient Greece, dogs were depicted practically in the form in which they exist now. Read this article to learn all about the history of the Pomeranian breed.
Homeland and Development of the Breed
In Germany, in the south of the Baltic Sea, there was the Pomeranian region, where the Pomeranian was bred. This name was given to the dogs precisely in honor of this historical region, which is currently part of the Mecklenburg-Vorpommern region in western Germany.
Around 1700, white dogs were bred in Pomerania. At that time this breed was called “Pommirl”. Black dogs lived in Württemberg, where they were engaged in the protection of vineyards. The dogs were larger than their modern counterparts. They were used mainly by poor people as guards for their homes and small boats.
Changes in the Life of Dogs
In the eighteenth century, the nobility became interested in these dogs, turning the Pomeranian breed from commoners into domestic elite pets. The then reigning queen of England, Charlotte, originally from Maclenburg, which borders Pomerania, brought a pet with her to live at court. It was then that the Pomeranian was first registered in Great Britain as a separate breed.
From this moment, the history of breeding and selection of the best specimens of dogs begins, gradually they become much smaller than their ancestors, who weighed about fourteen kilograms.
The Popularity of Miniature Size
At court, during the reign of Queen Charlotte, Pomeranian Spitz still weighed not so little as in modern times – about nine kilograms, the shade of their coat was mainly white or beige. Changes in the development of the breed took place in the early nineteenth century.
Queen Victoria’s granddaughter brought from Florence to England a representative of this favorite breed, whose name was Marco. He was small and weighed about five kilograms. Since then, she has become a supporter of these little dogs and defended the population of the miniature breed species. As a result, in 1871, Queen Victoria opened the English Pomeranian Club, in which members of this society, mainly women, adopted the breed standard.
Breeding in Germany
The German Spitz Union, which expanded the standard, appeared in Germany a little later, in 1899, when they began to breed dogs of various colors and sizes. On April 13, 1899, Charles Kammerer published a message to all lovers of this miniature dog, proposing to create a club of an independent breed in order to come to grips with breeding more advanced Pomeranian Spitz. To which all amateurs responded with great enthusiasm and, after the formation of society, began to ennoble the breed.
Already in 1913, members of the German Union were able to create the first German Studbook, where puppies were registered only after both of his parents deserve positive marks at the exhibition.
The charter of the union contained a list of restrictions for all its members, which made it possible to create a higher level of the breed.
After the First World War, most of the dog population was on the verge of destruction. To restore the population, Germany had to import dogs from Europe. But this great cause collapsed again because of the Second World War. After the cessation of hostilities, the German Spitz Club had to revise the standard and draw up a new one that has survived to this day, the last changes were made in 1998. These changes allowed breeders to breed different types of Pomeranian.
Development of the Breed in the Countries of the World
The Pomeranian, as a separate breed, immediately established itself in the following countries:
Germany became the birthplace of the Pomeranian of our time, officially recognized by the International Cynological Federation, where he gained his general fame. In addition to the whites and blacks bred in Eberswalde, Pomerania, and Wyutemburg, gray dogs were also bred along the Rhine.
After the Pomeranian Spitz came to England with Queen Victoria and firmly established themselves there, they continued their history. After the approval of the first standard for this breed in 1891, created by the English Pomeranian Club, dogs were divided into two classes:
- up to two and a half kilograms;
- over two and a half kilograms.
Already in 1915, the Pomeranian club from England began to admit representatives of the breed only weighing up to three and a half kilograms. The distinctive features of the British Spitz were not only small stature but also a light physique with a short muzzle and small ears. The coat of the English specimens was rich in a soft and fluffy undercoat, mainly of a red hue.
Having crossed the Atlantic Ocean at the end of the nineteenth century, the Pomeranian Spitz came to American lands. Despite the fact that this breed was isolated and approved by its standard in 1900, the American Pomeranian Club was opened only in 1909. Judge Dyer from England specially came to the dog show, which took place in 1911.
Although America was late in recognizing the Pomeranian as a separate breed, it is their dogs that today are the most exemplary representatives of this decorative breed, possessing a strong and dense constitution, as well as smooth movements. The American Spitz has a rich palette of coat colors.
Modern Pomeranian Spitz in France similar to the dogs of the past centuries with their muzzles – they are just as long and sharp. They also have large, evenly set ears.
Large white Pomeranians from England and black dogs from Germany were brought to Holland for breeding.
Pomeranian arrived in Russia at almost the same time as in the United States – at the end of the nineteenth century. Unfortunately, in the post-revolutionary period, the Spitz population was on the verge of extinction, they could not be acquired almost anywhere. The restoration of the popularity of this small breed in Russia began only at the end of the twentieth century.
During its history, representatives of this breed have not changed much. This friendly, intelligent, and loyal decorative dog with a chic and fluffy coat has become the favorite of many distinguished people and celebrities.